Fluency in Reading

The fluent reader is “one whose decoding processes are automatic, requiring no conscious attention.” (LaBerge and Samuels 1974) How fluent are the readers in your FL class? What do they need BEFORE they can be fluent readers? They need language. And they...

What is Fluency? What is Proficiency?

Fluency is being able to use all the language you’ve acquired unconsciously and correctly. Proficiency is being able to do that and also having enough vocabulary to make things happen in the world.

Immersion Looks Better, Though

Let’s not forget: immersion means being underwater. And novice language learners don’t have gills. An observer of a TPRS-based Chinese class recently commented (using words to this effect): This is a great program. But you should use less English. You use...

Does fluency occur in stages?

Here’s the problem with an all-TPRS Chinese program: there’s no reason why students would not be able to acquire virtually all the structure in modern standard Chinese by the end of the second year. Unlike the FIGS, where there are six forms to be taught...