Encapsulated readings

Cold Character reading is a purely TPRS writing form. It relies on reading passages that are long and have a high degree of internal repetition. There is typically a high level of proximal repetition (“clusters” of new words or phrases, especially when...

Fluency in Reading

The fluent reader is “one whose decoding processes are automatic, requiring no conscious attention.” (LaBerge and Samuels 1974) How fluent are the readers in your FL class? What do they need BEFORE they can be fluent readers? They need language. And they...

Purpose-Written Texts

Having problems with free reading? Free reading is a great idea, but to get reading happening, you need texts that are 100% comprehensible, even to students who have never seen the written form of the language before — even if the language is a non-simple script...

Is “free” reading what it’s really worth?

Free-reading is great. Everyone wants a classroom library. Everyone wants to have kids sitting quietly, absorbed in authentic materials in the target language. But is it the best use of acquisitional time for a novice-level learner? I say no. Because free reading is...